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GREEK EDUCATION                         25

teachers for the study of subjects like mathematics or rhetoric,
in the first decade of the Fourth Century, permanent schools of
higher learning with definite courses of lectures and routine
methods of criticism and discussion. The most famous and in-
fluential of these first schools for youths were those established
by Isocrates (436-338 B.C,) in his own house near the Lyceum
in 390 B.C., and by Plato (437-347 B»C.) in the Academy and an
adjacent garden a year or two later. In these two schools the
sophistic tradition was developed in divergent directions.
Isocrates, who had begun his career as a logographer (a professional
writer of law speeches), taught rhetoric and prepared his pupils
for practical life. Plato, the greatest of the disciples of Socrates,
continued the work of his master by teaching philosophy,,

Though dissociating himself from the sophists, Isocrates was
in all essential respects a sophist himself. Like them, he charged
fees to the students who flocked to his school from all parts of
the civilized world, though not, it is said, to the Athenian youths;
and his methods of instruction, apart from the greater elaboration
made necessary by a course extending over four years, do not
seem to have differed substantially from theirs. It is true that
he disclaimed any pretension to make every pupil an orator
irrespective of his ability, and confined himself to teaching the
technique of style and diction, and giving a practical philosophy
of life as a basis of intelligent discourse; but there is no reason
to believe that the better sophists set their claims any higher,
and the subjects of their prelections were much the same as his,
The chief difference between him and them—an important one
undoubtedly—was the greater opportunity he was able to give
in the longer period of study for practice in the rhetorical art
In his school, the pupils did not merely learn the theory of debate,
but actually debated. They were set to write and to speak on
all manner of current and historical topics, and were made to
criticise their own efforts and the efforts of their fellows in the
light of the principles expounded and illustrated by their master;
and thus they acquired both facility in expression and enlightened
views of life, to help them in their future work.

[frlato's school was different in many ways from that of Isocrates J
The absence of a practical incentive and the requirement of
mathematical and speculative interests must have made the
company of disciples smaller, and perhaps of greater age; and